The Four Resource model was developed to address the complexity of change in reading which students will require to be successful readers today, and in future literacies. The model is a framework for every teacher to ensure effective teaching, learning and assessment to meet the needs of a diverse school community. This includes the necessity for teachers ‘… to identify pedagogies that teach students to analyse tasks, problem solve, identify resources and self monitor in real-life contexts. Reading pedagogy must be socially situated’ (Literate Futures p27) and address technological change.
The Four Resource model identifies the Four Resources of code breaker, text user, text analyst and meaning maker, which are a set of practices, not a hierarchy. This model offers a way of ensuring a balanced reading program where all the practices are taught systematically.
Each of these practices can be taught at all school levels and in all subject areas.
Literate futures PD Guide – CD ROM
The Four Resource Model – a framework which
- Identifies four groups of reading practices
- Readers need a repertoire of resources
- Helps teachers in planning balanced reading programs that address all four of the practices and the associated resources
Practice of the Four Resource model:
- Code breaker
- Meaning maker
- Text user
- Text analyst
· To do with breaking the code of the semiotic systems used in texts
o A reader must ask the following questions:
§ How do I crack this text?
§ How does it work?
§ Is there more than one semiotic system operating here? If so, how do they relate?
§ What are its (their) codes and conventions?
§ How do the parts relate singly and in combination?
· Readers have command of a range of semiotic systems including aural, gestural, linguistic, special and visual.
· To do with making literal and inferential meanings of texts.
o Questions when engaging in text-meaning practices:
§ How are the ideas in this text sequenced – do they connect with one another?
§ Is the text linear or non-linear; interactive or non-interactive? How does this affect the way I make meaning?
§ What prior knowledge and experiences might help me make meaning of this text?
§ How will my purpose for reading, and the context in which I am reading, influence my meaning making?
§ Are there other possible meanings and readings of this text?
· Text-user practices form the major part of people’s everyday lives.
· The focus of text-user practices is the use of texts in real-life situations, be they in workplace, leisure, religious or other social settings. They may be part of face to face oral negotiations around written texts (loan or registering for employment), or be used online over the Internet (not face-to-face).
o Questions a text-user reader might ask are:
§ What is the purpose of this text, and what is my purpose in using it?
§ How have the uses of this text shaped its composition?
§ What should I do with this text in this context?
§ What will others do with this text?
§ What are my options or alternatives after reading?
· Texts are social products; they are not neutral. They construct and reconstruct the world, and shape and convey ideologies.
· Involve readers in the critical analysis of texts in order to understand how texts work, why they have been constructed, who benefits from their construction, and who controls access to them.
· By engaging in text-analyst practices the reader – rather than the text – holds the power.
· Questions that might be asked:
o What kind of person, with what interests and values, produced this text?
o What are the origins of this text?
o What is the text trying to make me believe and do?
o What beliefs and positions are dominant in the text?
o What beliefs and positions are silenced or absent?
o Who do I think about the way this text presents these ideas, and what alternatives are there?
o Having critically examined this text, what action am I going to take?
How does the Four Resource Model assist with the teaching of reading?
- Focuses us as teachers on the practices of reading and on the resources readers need to engage in these practices.
- Reading occurs in all aspects of life.
- Read, and the teaching of reading, are the core business of every teacher.
- Enables teachers to balance their reading program
- Respond to changes in technologies, texts and societies and to cater for the diverse needs of students and their communities
- It ensures that students with learning difficulties also have an understanding of the four reading practices.
Key points about the Four Resource model as a framework for planning a reading program
- 4 reading practices are not a hierarchy
- Readers rarely use one practice on its own.
- All four practices should be used in all levels of schooling across all key learning areas.
It’s about reading as a social practice, as well as the associated resources
- There is a temptation to focus on the resources i.e knowledge, skills and processes) needed in order to engage with the practices, rather than on both resources and practices. IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT SUCH READING BE CONNECTED TO, AND EMBEDDED IN, REAL-LIFE READING PRACTICES.
It’s about balance and change
- The Four Resource model can be viewed as Heuristic (problem solving, self-discovery), a way of balance a reading program and ensuring that all reading practices are taught.
- Ensure that reading programs could address diversity and social and technological change.
It’s about technology: multiple modes, multimedia and platforms
- Texts are constructed with technology, be it paper and pen or electronic. Reading must be situation in real-life use of the practices and associated resources necessary for reading in multiple modes, multimedia and multiple platforms.
It’s about explicit focused pedagogy with real texts
- Teachers must use real-life, lifelike and focused learning episodes to ensure students understand how to combine and recombine their available resources in order to engage in all four reading practices, in a range of contexts, using various platforms.
How can we use this model to plan for the teaching of reading?
- The Four resource model can be used to inform planning for teaching reading in all key learning areas at all levels of schooling.
Do multiliteracies and the Four Resource model mean that current ways of teaching reading are no longer useful or appropriate?
- No – when a new model or theory emerges it is good to re-examine what we know about the topic, and to think about how it relates to the new model.
- Identify what we know that remains useful
- Rediscover useful approaches that may have been forgotten or are no longer used
- Identify the gaps in our knowledge through PD